BANWA Series A 2018-10-08T17:43:58+00:00 Mr. Michael Noel R. Bonghanoy Open Journal Systems <p><em>Banwa</em> is a multidisciplinary, open-access, peer-reviewed journal published biennially by the University of the Philippines Mindanao. <em>Series A </em>publishes scholarly and creative works in the fields of arts and humanities and the social and behavioural sciences, particularly in anthropology and sociology, architecture and design, communication and media studies, history, linguistics and languages, literature and literary studies, philosophy and religious studies, and visual and performing arts. As a regional journal, <em>Series A</em> has preference for, but is not limited to, scholarly and creative works about or relevant to Mindanao.</p> School-Based Community Engagement in Higher Education Institutions: Selected Case Studies in the Philippines 2018-10-04T19:30:25+00:00 Glenn S. Lubuguin Rowena DT. Baconguis Jody Aked There is growing scholarly interest in understanding the dynamism of school-based community engagement in educational institutions, particularly on the formative effects of these modes of instruction-driven public services on students, school staff, and communities. This study sought to investigate different modes of community engagement activities in selected Philippine higher education institutions. A multi-sector participatory systemic inquiry using a series of field visits, focused group discussions, semi-structured key informant interviews, and informal workshops were conducted among volunteers, school staff, and community members of respective higher education institutions. Results showed that school-based community engagement can be classified in relation to teaching-learning functions as curricular, co-curricular, and non-curricular. Among students, faculty, and staff, such activities generally improved sense of self-fulfillment, over-all well-being and developed competencies, enhanced teaching pedagogy, and appreciation for participatory tools for both classroom and community work. Among communities, the engagement improved economic opportunities, organizational and project management skills, and expanded networks. Unfortunately, school-based community engagement in Philippine higher education institutions are hampered and discouraged by administrative and policy problems that include weak internal coordination among school units, paperwork, protocols, and lack of enabling mechanisms such as promotion, merit, or incentive system. 2018-06-08T15:08:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INTRODUCTION - The LIFE Model: Improving the Methods and Impacts of Agricultural Extension in Conflict Vulnerable Areas of Mindanao, Southern Philippines 2018-10-05T10:48:31+00:00 Noel Vock A project entitled "Improving the methods and impacts of agricultural extension in conict areas of Mindanao, Philippines” commenced in late 2013 and scheduled to conclude in 2019. Key project partners include the Landcare Foundation of the Philippines Inc. (LFPI); the University of the Philippines Mindanao (UPMin); the University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB); and the RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. The project is primarily funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic, and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) has also had a close association with the project and are funding an expanded set of activities overseen by UPMin. This paper introduces the aim and objectives of the project. Subsequent papers present detailed background material and a series of project results to date. 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Agricultural Extension, Community-Based Development, and Conflict 2018-10-04T19:30:27+00:00 Kenneth Menz This paper is the first of a series regarding a project that aims to develop an improved model for agricultural extension in conflict-affected areas of Mindanao. The paper contains a literature review undertaken to determine whether there are conceptual or practical pointers available that would facilitate the achievement of the project objectives. The paper commences with an overview of the development of agricultural extension, leading into a discussion of the role of agricultural extension in conflict areas, in general, and then specifically in relation to Mindanao. The commonality between the principles of agricultural extension and community-based development is recognized, especially for conflict areas. In such areas, building on existing community or farmer-based approaches is likely to be more sustainable post conflict (as opposed to “imposing” solutions from outside). This may be a good general strategy for externally funded development projects regardless of conflict, but it is especially important in a conflict environment. The literature review further explores and explains how social capital can be seen as a key component of both extension and other forms of community-based development. Social capital is particularly relevant in conflict-vulnerable situations, such as those that prevail in Mindanao. 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Layman’s Guide to Social Capital and the Relevance for Economic Development 2018-10-04T19:30:27+00:00 Jailyn Puerto Canesio Predo Kenneth Menz Mary Johnson The previous paper (Menz, this issue) explored the nexus between agricultural extension and social capital. This chapter spells out the nature of social capital in a more extensive way. Although social capital is a relatively new concept, one of its attractions is that it can accommodate both economic and social science philosophies. An illuminating elucidation of social capital was given by Alejandro Portes: “Whereas economic capital is in people’s bank accounts and human capital is inside their heads, social capital is (inherent) in the structure of their relationships. To possess social capital, a person must be related to others, and it is these others . . . who are the actual source of his or her advantage.” Building social capital can help economic development by reducing the cost of conducting day-to-day business, it facilitates the spread of knowledge and innovation and it promotes cooperation and market-based interaction. From the review of the literature on social capital and economic development, it can be concluded that social capital is strongly linked to economic development. This empirical result supports the positive theoretical and operational linkages between social capital and agricultural extension as outlined previously. Those linkages could reasonably be expected to be particularly important in conflict areas. 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Approaches to Understanding Social Capital in Farm Communities of Western Mindanao 2018-10-04T19:30:29+00:00 Mary Johnson Noel Vock Anne Shangrila Fuentes Evy Carusos Previous papers (Menz; Puerto et al., this issue) have defined and developed the concept of social capital as it relates to agricultural extension in general and specifically to the our proposed extension model. This paper emphasizes and describes various innovative approaches to understanding the nature of social capital within farming communities in conflict-vulnerable areas of Mindanao, Philippines. The relevance of each approach is explained in the context of the project, along with the practical outcomes from applying those approaches. Lessons learnt in each case are detailed and should be useful to field practitioners. It is not possible to select any particular approach as preferable as this decision will depend upon the specifics of the situation along with the relative cost of data collection. Indeed the various approaches are complementary and can be used in concert. The tools described here have proven to be feasibly applied in the difficult and complex environment of Western Mindanao. 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Framework for Developing Social Capital Indicators 2018-10-08T17:43:58+00:00 Mary Johnson Noel Vock Anne Shangrila Fuentes Evy Carusos Previous papers (Puerto et al; Johnson et al., this issue) have defined social capital and explained its relevance to agricultural (and other) extension approaches. The strong linkage between social capital and economic development was also described. It was also noted that social capital is an elusive concept to measure. Consequently “indicators” are frequently used to assess changes in social capital. However, deciding on an appropriate set of indicators is a nontrivial task and is dependent upon the settings in which the indicators are to be used. This paper first describes the initial steps taken in implementing an improved model of agricultural extension. This provides a context for the derivation of the social capital indicators relevant to the project discussed in detail in later papers (see Vock et al.; Meguito et al., this issue). A framework is then produced for deriving a set of indicators, followed by the indicators themselves and guides to measurement. At the micro level, the identified indicators were the following: farmer group is established and functioning; farmer group expanding their networks; level of trust within the farmer group and community is increasing; and the farmer group is contributing to community solidarity. At the meso level, the identified indicators are the following: local institutions and key personnel are present and accessible; local institutions are actively engaged with farmer groups; and local institutions are well networked within the target area and externally. The framework was then expanded to encompass measurement guidelines for each indicator along the lines of “what can change,” “how to measure,” “measurement outcome,” and “importance of the measure.” The framework has potentially broad application beyond the project for which this was developed. The framework is more “local” in nature compared to most previous attempts to derive social capital indicators. 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The LIFE Model: Livelihood Improvement through Facilitated Extension 2018-10-04T19:30:34+00:00 Noel Vock Mary Johnson Kenneth Menz Evy Carusos The previous papers (Menz; Puerto et al.; Johnson et al.; Johnson et al., this issue) provided a background context for the development of an extension model thought to be applicable in conflict-vulnerable areas of Mindanao. This was done by developing and using an extension model that is effective and resource efficient, as well as sufficiently flexible to be adapted to local community needs. First in this chapter, learnings from previous extension work are listed. From those learnings, a set of sixteen extension principles are derived. These extension principles are categorized under the umbrella of three overarching and concurrent extension strategies: (1) improving access to technical innovations, (2) building community social capital, and (3) collaborating closely with local institutional partners. Finally a set of practical activities that defines the model is specified, while recognizing the need for flexibility in responding to prevailing circumstances. 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preliminary Assessment of the Application of the LIFE Model in Barangay Salman, Ampatuan 2018-10-08T11:25:16+00:00 Athea Menguito Canesio Predo Mary Johnson Kenneth Menz Anne Shangrila Fuentes This paper contains some initial positive results of farmer surveys assessing lifestyle, economic, and social effects from the application of the model in one case study site—Salman, Ampatuan, Maguindanao. These are interim results rather than final as the project is ongoing within an action research framework. The paper merely aims to describe changes that are occurring in the spirit of making a preliminary judgement about the impact of applying the LIFE extension model that was described in Vock et al. (this issue). If the impact would be found to be negligible or negative, a total rethink of the model would be required. It is not a “final” assessment of the whole project, or even a final assessment of impacts at that particular site. The assessment involved primary data collection through personal farmer interviews. This paper combines economic and sociological parameters. This continues a theme of the project which is to maintain a joint socioeconomic perspective whenever possible. Economic impacts from applying the extension model were found to be positive and these translated strongly into lifestyle changes with respect to matters such as health, education, food, and shelter. 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##